Comparison of lasers for surgery

For many decades, the only means for incisions during surgical operations was a metal scalpel. In the USSR, for the Лазеры для хирургииfirst time, surgical treatment with a laser was performed at the Moscow Herzen in 1965, together with NPP Istok. Since then, laser surgery has been actively developing. To date, surgeons have learned to widely use laser technology instead of the long-established traditional methods. Laser scalpel showed excellent results in operations on parenchymal (rich in blood vessels – liver, kidneys, heart). Also, lasers have become actively used in surgical interventions that require special accuracy (ophthalmology, operations on the nervous systems, etc.). The laser scalpel is based on the method of selective photothermolysis. He suggests that the tissues of the human body selectively absorb laser beams emitted at a specific wavelength. Thus, local destruction is formed. When the main chromophores of the skin: hemoglobin, water or melanin absorb electromagnetic energy generated by the laser beam, the light is converted into heat. Due to this, the chromophores are heated and “evaporated”. This process is called “coagulation.”

Thanks to coagulation, it became possible to carry out operations almost bloodless and with minimal damage to nearby tissues. Conventionally, surgical lasers can be divided into three groups according to power level: coagulating (1–5 W); evaporating and shallow cutting (5–20 W); deep cutting (20–100 W).

Laser applications in surgery

The surgical laser can be used to perform almost any surgical operation. Below is just a small part of the list of operations that can be performed using a surgical laser:

  1. Removal of benign tumors.
  2. Cauterization of blood vessels to reduce blood loss.
  3. Resection of a part of an organ without irreversible damage to the latter.
  4. Open biopsies of internal organs.
  5. Fabric welding, etc.

The benefits of using lasers in surgery

The use of a laser beam in surgery provides a selective and controlled effect on tissues. Laser surgery has several advantages:

  1. Respect for healthy tissue.
  2. Contactless (ensuring almost complete sterility).
  3. High precision and small cut area.
  4. Almost complete bloodlessness due to coagulation.
  5. Reduction of the postoperative period.
  6. Significant reduction in the size of scars or their absence.
  7. Minimal chance of postoperative complications.
  8. Possibility of sharing with an endoscope or laparoscope, etc.

Contraindications for the use of lasers in surgery

Despite the high degree of effectiveness of surgical lasers, it is recommended not to use them in the following cases:

  1. Purulent infections.
  2. Diabetes.
  3. Heart failure.
  4. Chronic renal failure.
  5. Extensive malignant tumors.
  6. Thyrotoxicosis.

Types of surgical lasers

The following lasers are most actively used in surgery today:

  1. Neodymium laser (1064 nm) – penetrates deep into 4 mm and is used for coagulation in urology, gynecology, when removing tumors or stopping bleeding,
  2. Erbium laser (2940 nm) – used to reduce possible postoperative scars,
  3. Diode laser (808 nm) – usually used for small surgeries (gynecology, ophthalmology, etc.),
  4. CO2 laser (10 600 nm) – penetrates to a depth of 0.1 mm and is used in general surgery and gynecology.

Today, the world market is represented by a very large number of laser systems that can solve the problems of laser surgery. LASEST medical laser is one of the most balanced solutions for laser surgery due to the successful combination of laser modules of neodymium, erbium, diode in one set.