Dermatologists began to actively use the laser against pigmentation relatively recently, but this method almost immediately proved itself on the positive side due to excellent results. Particularly acute is the problem of excessive pigmentation on the face, and therefore this is where laser technologies are so important, because able to combine high efficacy and painlessness. Brown spots appear due to the excess pigment melanin, which is reproduced by special cells of the dermis – melanocytes. As a rule, dermatologists subdivide pigment spots into two types: primary (age-related formations, moles, freckles, etc.) and secondary (post-infectious and post-inflammatory). Violation of the production of melanin depends on many factors, which include hormonal imbalance, genetic predisposition, lack of vitamins, etc.
When removing pigment spots by laser, especially on the face, you should first determine the type of pigmentation and make the correct diagnosis. The following types of benign pigmented lesions respond most effectively to laser treatment: lentiginosis, freckles, Oto and Ito nevi, coffee-colored milk stains (PCM). The use of laser exposure to other types of pigmentation – melasma, non-cellular nevus, malignant lentigo, etc. it is recommended only to experienced doctors because of the significant variability in the response of the skin to laser exposure.
When removing pigment spots using laser radiation, the main chromophore is accumulations of melanin pigments. In this case, in contrast to the laser hair removal procedure, where the chromophore is also melanin, in laser treatment of pigmentation, laser radiation focuses on the particles of melanin contained in melanocytes, keratinocytes or skin macrophages. The size of the individual melanin particles to which the laser radiation is directed, in this case, is very small, therefore, the duration of the laser pulses should also be very short and for safe and effective pigmentation removal should not exceed 8-10ns.
Thus, analyzing the concept of the thermal relaxation time of a target under laser irradiation, it can be concluded that Q-switched lasers are most suitable. In addition to temporal characteristics, the wavelength of the laser module radiation is also of great importance. Given the absorption spectrum of melanin and the depth of penetration of laser radiation into the skin, ruby Q-switched lasers are most suitable for laser removal of pigmentation. A number of dermatologists indicate that good results are also achieved with a KTP neodymium laser with Q-switch, but only for fair skin and pigmentation with a small depth of bedding (PCCM), otherwise the risk of micro-scars increases significantly.
When laser treatment of pigmentation, it is very important to observe a certain sequence of actions that must be maintained with the correct removal of pigment spots:
It should be remembered that only full compliance with these actions and the use of professional medical laser equipment guarantees safe and effective removal of pigmentation and the avoidance of scars and burns.